李晟,王博文,管海涛,等. 远场合成孔径计算光学成像技术:文献综述与最新进展[J]. 光电工程,2023,50(10): 230090. doi: 10.12086/oee.2023.230090
引用本文: 李晟,王博文,管海涛,等. 远场合成孔径计算光学成像技术:文献综述与最新进展[J]. 光电工程,2023,50(10): 230090. doi: 10.12086/oee.2023.230090
Li S, Wang B W, Guan H T, et al. Far-field computational optical imaging techniques based on synthetic aperture: a review[J]. Opto-Electron Eng, 2023, 50(10): 230090. doi: 10.12086/oee.2023.230090
Citation: Li S, Wang B W, Guan H T, et al. Far-field computational optical imaging techniques based on synthetic aperture: a review[J]. Opto-Electron Eng, 2023, 50(10): 230090. doi: 10.12086/oee.2023.230090


  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金资助项目(U21B2033, 61905115, 62105151, 62175109);国家重大科研仪器研制项目(62227818);江苏省基础研究计划前沿引领专项(BK20192003);光电测量与智能感知中关村开放实验室与北京控制工程研究所空间光电测量与感知实验室开放基金资助项目(LabSOMP-2022-05);江苏省科技计划重点国别产业技术研发合作项目(BZ2022039);中央高校科研专项资助项目(30920032101);江苏省光谱成像与智能感知重点实验室开放基金资助项目(JSGP202105, JSGP202201)
    通讯作者: 陈钱,chenqian@njust.edu.cn 左超,zuochao@njust.edu.cn
  • 中图分类号: TP394.1;TH691.9

Far-field computational optical imaging techniques based on synthetic aperture: a review

  • Fund Project: Project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (61905115, 62105151, 62175109, U21B2033), National Major Scientific Instrument Development Project (62227818), Leading Technology of Jiangsu Basic Research Plan (BK20192003), Youth Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20190445, BK20210338), Biomedical Competition Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BE2022847), Open Fund for Laboratory of Spatial Optoelectronic Measurement and Perception, Zhongguancun Open Laboratory of Optical Measurement and Intelligent Perception and Beijing Institute of Control and Engineering (LabSOMP-2022-05), Key National Industrial Technology Cooperation Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BZ2022039), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (30920032101), and Open Research Fund of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Spectral Imaging & Intelligent Sense (JSGP202105, JSGP202201)
More Information
  • 传统光学成像实质上是目标场景的光强信号在空间维度上的直接均匀采样记录与再现的过程。因此,其成像分辨率与信息量不可避免地受到光学衍射极限、成像系统空间带宽积等若干物理条件制约。如何突破这些物理制约,获得更高分辨率、更宽广的图像信息,一直是该领域的永恒课题。计算光学成像通过前端光学调控与后端信号处理相结合,为突破成像系统的衍射极限限制,实现超分辨成像提供了新思路。本文综述了基于计算光学合成孔径成像实现成像分辨率的提升以及空间带宽积拓展的相关研究工作,主要包括基于相干主动合成孔径成像与非相干被动合成孔径成像的基础理论及关键技术。本文进一步揭示了当前“非相干、无源被动、超衍射极限”成像的迫切需求及其现阶段存在的瓶颈问题,并展望了今后的研究方向以及解决这些问题可能的技术途径。

  • Overview: More than 80% of human perception of external information comes from vision, and acquiring more information about the objective world is the eternal goal of human pursuit. Conventional optical imaging is essentially a process of recording and reproducing the intensity signal of a scene in the spatial dimension with direct uniform sampling. Therefore, the resolution and information content of imaging are inevitably constrained by several physical limitations such as optical diffraction limit, and spatial bandwidth product of the imaging system. How to break these physical limitations and obtain higher resolution and broader image field of view has been an eternal topic in this field. Computational optical imaging, by combining front-end optical modulation with back-end signal processing, offers a new approach to surpassing the diffraction limit of imaging systems and realizing super-resolution imaging. Although synthetic aperture techniques first exploited the idea of computational optical imaging to achieve resolution enhancement, they have never been encapsulated as a system in computational optical imaging. In this paper, we introduce the relevant research efforts on improving imaging resolution and expanding the spatial bandwidth product through computational optical synthetic aperture imaging, including the basic theory and technologies based on coherent active synthetic aperture imaging and incoherent passive synthetic aperture imaging. Furthermore, this paper reveals the pressing demand for "incoherent, passive, and beyond-diffraction-limit" imaging, identifies the bottlenecks, and provides an outlook on future research directions and potential technical approaches to address these challenges. The rapidly advancing computational imaging technology has provided new ideas, methods, and theories for far-field synthetic aperture detection. It significantly enhances the imaging efficiency of traditional synthetic aperture techniques and reduces excessive reliance on "interferometric phase acquisition" in synthetic aperture technology. It breaks through the functional/performance boundaries that traditional synthetic aperture technology can achieve and provides possibilities for extensive expansion and extension in the field of far-field synthetic aperture. Within the current computational imaging system, there are still a series of new concepts and new imaging techniques that are being perfected. It can be anticipated that as a branch of computational imaging, far-field optical synthetic aperture detection technology will undoubtedly experience rapid development and bring forth more possibilities in remote sensing, military reconnaissance, and near-Earth satellite detection, among other fields.

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  • 图 1  传统光学成像系统。(a) 传统光学成像系统的成像过程[2];(b) 远场探测中不同光学成像系统分辨能力与成本、重量的矛盾关系[9]

    Figure 1.  Conventional optical imaging system. (a) Conventional optical imaging process[2]; (b) The contradictory relationship between resolution, cost, and weight of different optical imaging systems in far-field detection[9]

    图 2  (a) 迈克尔逊恒星干涉仪;(b) 恒星光干涉结构示意图;(c) 位于美国新墨西哥州的甚大天线阵[12];(d) 全球范围的甚长基线干涉测量技术

    Figure 2.  (a) Michelson stellar interferometer; (b) Schematic diagram of stellar light interference; (c) Very large array (VLA) in New Mexico, USA[12]; (d) Global very long baseline interferometry (VLBI)

    图 3  计算光学成像系统的成像过程[2]

    Figure 3.  Imaging process of the computational optical imaging system[2]

    图 4  合成孔径技术在远场探测领域的分类及发展

    Figure 4.  Classification and development of synthetic aperture technique in the far-field detection

    图 5  Tippie通过相机扫描获得两亿像素合成孔径数字全息成像的系统示意图及USAF分辨率板的定量提升效果[21]

    Figure 5.  Tippie's system schematic for obtaining 200-megapixel synthetic aperture digital holographic result from camera scanning and the quantitative enhancement effect of USAF resolution chart [21]

    图 6  合成孔径激光雷达在相干照明条件进行孔径合成,实现方位向分辨率提升

    Figure 6.  Synthetic aperture lidar achieves azimuthal resolution enhancement by aperture synthesis with coherent illumination

    图 7  傅里叶叠层显微成像系统以及USAF分辨率板实验结果[32]

    Figure 7.  Fourier ptychographic microscopy imaging system and experimental results of USAF resolution chart [32]

    图 8  相机阵列傅里叶叠层成像方案示意图[37]。(a)尺寸为12.5 mm的单个孔径成像方案;(b)利用相机阵列实现125 mm合成孔径成像结果的方案;(c)使用孔径扫描模拟图(b)中的成像方案以获取成效的高分辨率成像结果

    Figure 8.  Schematic diagram of the camera array Fourier ptychography imaging[37]. (a) The single aperture imaging scheme with a size of 12.5 mm; (b) The scheme to achieve 125 mm synthetic aperture imaging results using the camera array; (c) The imaging scheme in (b) using the aperture scanning to obtain effective high-resolution imaging results

    图 9  基于傅里叶叠层成像的远距离、亚衍射极限可见光成像[39]。(a) 成像示意图;(b) 实际搭建的1 m成像距离下的系统结构图

    Figure 9.  Synthetic apertures for long-range and subdiffraction-limited visible imaging using Fourier ptychography[39]. (a) Imaging schematic; (b) Structural diagram of the system at 1 m imaging distance

    图 10  USAF分辨率板实验结果[39]。(a) 分别为子孔径直接成像结果、短曝光平均结果,旋转漫射体成像结果以及合成孔径、合成孔径去噪结果;(b) 五种方法的成像结果区域放大;(c) 可分辨线对与对比度曲线图;(d) 合成孔径尺寸与散斑尺寸曲线图

    Figure 10.  FP for improving spatial resolution in diffuse objects[39]. (a) Resolution of a USAF target under coherent light under various imaging modalities; (b) Magnified regions of various bar groups recovered by the five techniques; (c) Contrast of the bars as a function of feature size; (d) Speckle size and resolution loss are inversely proportional to the size of the imaging aperture

    图 11  傅里叶叠层显微系统中在LED阵列上存在的定位误差示意图 [42]。(a) X-Y平面上的误差;(b) 由于LED阵列存在的角度偏移导致的位姿偏差

    Figure 11.  Schematic diagram of the positioning errors present on the LED array in the Fourier ptychographic microscopy system [42]. (a) Errors in the X-Y plane; (b) Pose misalignment due to the angular offset of the LED array

    图 12  基于TV正则化宏观傅里叶叠层成像系统示意图[47]

    Figure 12.  Schematic diagram of the macroscopic Fourier ptychography imaging system based on TV regularization [47]

    图 13  本课题组设计的单次远程合成孔径成像系统获取的车辆动态追逐成像结果[48]。(a) 成像结果对比;(b, c) 细节放大区域对比;(d, e) PSNR及SSIM对比以及两车位移对比

    Figure 13.  Constructed vehicle dynamic pursuit imaging results[48]. (a) Comparison of imaging results; (b, c) Comparison of magnified details; (d, e) Comparison of PSNR and SSIM as well as comparison of two car displacements

    图 14  基于准平面波的12 m远场成像实验。(a) 系统的实验设置;(b) 扑克牌场景作为检测目标;(c) 系统的部分区域放大和低分辨率图像捕获;(d) 子孔径的目标的原始图像和相应的剖线图;(e) 累积平均法的结果和相应的剖线图;(f) 利用所提出方法的重建结果和相应的剖线图

    Figure 14.  12 m far-field imaging experiments based on quasi-plane wave. (a) Experimental setup of the R-FP system; (b) The poker card scenario as the detection target; (c) Partial area enlargement of the R-FP system and low-resolution image capture; (d) Raw image of target by the sub-aperture and corresponding line profile; (e) The result of cumulative averaging method and corresponding line profile; (f) Reconstruction result of R-FP with TV regularization and corresponding line profile

    图 15  非相干合成孔径的典型结构

    Figure 15.  Typical structure of incoherent synthetic aperture

    图 16  Fizeau型合成孔径望远镜。(a) 多镜面望远镜;(b) 多镜面望远镜的结构示意图[57];(c) 詹姆斯·韦伯太空望远镜;(d) 詹姆斯·韦伯望远镜结构示意图[59]

    Figure 16.  Synthetic aperture of Fizeau interferometer. (a) Multi-mirror telescope (MMT); (b) Schematic diagram of the MMT[57]; (c) James Webb space telescope (JWST); (d) Schematic diagram of the JWST[59]

    图 17  欧洲南方天文台的甚大望远镜干涉仪[67-68]

    Figure 17.  Very large telescope interferometer (vlti) of the european southern observatory (ESO)[67-68]

    图 18  (a) 初代SPIDER概念模型及分解图;(b) PIC内部结构示意图[70]

    Figure 18.  (a) Primitive SPIDER conceptual model and decomposition diagram; (b) Schematic diagram of the internal structure of the PIC[70]

    图 19  (a) 分层多级透镜阵列与非均匀分层多级透镜阵列[72-73];(b) 六边形阵列结构及其三维结构模型[74];(c) 等间距同心环排布的透镜阵列及其基线配对方式[75]

    Figure 19.  (a) Hierarchical multistage lens array with non-uniform hierarchical multistage lens array[72-73] ; (b) Hexagonal array structure and its 3D structure model[74]; (c) Equally spaced concentric ring arrangement of the lens array and its baseline pairing method[75]

    图 20  (a) 初代PIC内部结构设计及实验验证平台[80-82];(b)第二代PIC采用的三层结构及实验验证平台[83-85]

    Figure 20.  (a) Internal structure design and experimental verification platform of the first-generation PIC [80-82]; (b) Three-layer structure and experimental verification platform adopted by the second-generation PIC[83-85]

    图 21  (a) SAFE技术合成孔径成像示意图;(b) OCTISAI技术合成孔径成像光路[88]

    Figure 21.  (a) Schematic diagram of synthetic aperture imaging by SAFE technique; (b) Optical path of synthetic aperture imaging by OCTISAI technique[88]

    图 22  (a) 基于自相关探测的孔径合成原理示意图;(b) 基于自相关探测的合成孔径成像光路;(c, d) 孔径合成前后的重建结果及其细节对比[91]

    Figure 22.  (a) Schematic diagram of the principle of aperture synthesis based on autocorrelation detection; (b) Synthetic aperture imaging optical path based on autocorrelation detection; (c, d) Reconstruction results before and after aperture synthesis and detail comparison[91]

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收稿日期:  2023-04-20
修回日期:  2023-06-28
录用日期:  2023-07-08
网络出版日期:  2023-11-14
刊出日期:  2023-10-25